(pl. Piyyutim)
   Liturgical hymns of the Jewish tradition. Originally written to enhance prayers, they eventually became detached as those prayers became more and more the province of the professional hazan (cantor) by the sixth century. The classical piyyut flourished in Palestine from the sixth to 11th centuries, characterized by isosyllabic, non-rhyming texts based on the Talmud and Midrash. Some authorities, notably Maimonides, protested their introduction into the liturgy. The earliest notated piyyutim date from c. 1100. Another branch of piyytim flourished in Spain from the 10th to 14th centuries, heavily influenced by the dominant Arabic culture. Here poets turned to Biblical sources and adopted rhymed and eventually strophic poetry. Some piyyutim are contrafacta of popular Arabic songs. In general, the melodies are metric, except those with strictly Biblical texts, in contrast to the classical {}piyyutim, which are believed to have been chanted in the manner of prayers.
   Piyyutim may be sung by one or more soloists, by a chorus, or in some combination with the congregation contributing brief responses such as "Amen" or Halleluya. Traditionally, only men sing, but in modern Western communities women may also perform.
   See also Lekha Dodi; Pizmon.

Historical dictionary of sacred music. . 2006.

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  • PIYYUT — (Heb. פִּיּוּט; plural: piyyutim; from the Greek ποιητής), a lyrical composition intended to embellish an obligatory prayer or any other religious ceremony, communal or private. In a wider sense, piyyut is the totality of compositions composed in …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Piyyut — A piyyut (plural piyyutim, Hebrew פיוט, IPA2|pijút and [pijutím] ) is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. Piyyutim have been written since Temple times. Most piyyutim are in… …   Wikipedia

  • Piyyut — Piyyout Un piyyout (plur. piyyoutim, en hébreu פיוט IPA : /pijút/ et [pijutím]) est un poème liturgique juif généralement destiné à être chanté ou récité pendant l office. Il existe des piyyoutim depuis l époque du temple de Jérusalem. La… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Piyyut — Seph. Heb. /pee yooht /; Ashk. Heb. /pee yoot/, n., pl. Piyyutim Seph. Heb. /pee yooh teem /; Ashk. Heb. /pi yooh tim/. Judaism. a liturgical poem included in the services on holidays and special Sabbaths in addition to the established prayers. * …   Universalium

  • piyyut — …   Useful english dictionary

  • PROSODY, HEBREW — This article is a survey of the history of Hebrew poetic forms from the Bible to the present time. The entry is arranged according to the following outline: introduction the variety of formal systems the specific nature of hebrew literary history …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • POETRY — This article is arranged according to the following outline (for modern poetry, see hebrew literature , Modern; see also prosody ): biblical poetry introduction the search for identifiable indicators of biblical poetry the presence of poetry in… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • HEBREW LANGUAGE — This entry is arranged according to the following scheme: pre biblical biblical the dead sea scrolls mishnaic medieval modern period A detailed table of contents precedes each section. PRE BIBLICAL nature of the evidence the sources phonology… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • MUSIC — This article is arranged according to the following outline: introduction written sources of direct and circumstantial evidence the material relics and iconography notated sources oral tradition archives and important collections of jewish music… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • LITURGY — has conventionally been understood as the words that Jews recite in public worship. While written words are almost all that remains from earlier times, the study of liturgy today understands that the ways that these words are performed shapes… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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